Unlike atakpame (coursed earth technique of building), wattle-and-daub structures can be built quickly. The structure has a frame of horizontal and vertical poles, into which molded earthen balls are pressed to create walls. Whereas atakpame must be allowed to dry thoroughly before the next course is added, the "wattle" framing allows the "daub" to be placed and the walls completed without waiting for lower levels to dry. Ahenkro, December, 1982.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial
University of Victoria Libraries
Thatched roofs; Wattle and daub; Building, Clay; Housing
Houses along the main street of Wewa. Doorways lead to interior courtyards of these compounds. Walls are made primarily using an atakpame (coursed earth) technique, though the pillared verandah wall (far right) was made with sun-dried bricks. Part of the roof of the near compound has recently been re-thatched. The streets and houses are kept clear of grass and other plants. Wewa, December, 1982.
The walls of an atakpame (coursed-earth) structure drying before the next course of earthen building material is added. Behind, to the left, a block constructed building in progress and houses with metal roofs. Dompofie, September, 1982.
A skilled builder (Akwasi Nyua Tonyaa) places atakpame balls on the previously laid and dried course of earthen wall. He carefully molds the moist earthen ball to the dry course to ensure a strong wall. Dompofie, September, 1982.
Hunters (bͻfͻ; pl. bͻfͻͻlͻ in Nafaanra) with firearms, Fawoman, August, 1982. In times past, "bush" meat was important to local life. Archaeological evidence shows that people relied on a wide range of wild animals--from grasscutters to large carnivores--as sources of meat and valued materials like skins. From 1971 hunting was banned within the newly established Bui National Park (a Wildlife Protected Area covering more than 1800 km2). From 1989, Ghana's Wildlife Conservation (Amendment) Regulations (L. I. 1452) banned unlicensed hunting outside of park lands. Oral histories describe hunters as individuals whose knowledge of the land was important to communities as they sought to establish settlements in new areas. Fawoman, September, 1982.
Family members work together at farm to process calabash (gourd; chrԑ in Nafaanra) grown as both a cash crop and a source of household objects and its seeds as a soup ingredient. The men use large knives to split the calabash, after which they will remove its pulpy center and scrape its interior walls. Pictured here are (left to right) Maa Afia (girl), Ama Bosin (woman), O. K. Kwabena Krah, Nduo Wulo Kwadwo and Joshua Tandor. Farm on the outskirts of Banda-Ahenkro, August, 1982.
Joshua Tandor uses a metal blade and a mallet to split a calabash (chrԑ in Nafaanra) in half. The pulp and seeds are removed and the calabash walls scraped clean before being set aside to dry. The resulting calabash bowls (chrԑgbͻͻ) are sold at market while the seeds are a prized soup ingredient (fnumu). Farmstead on the outskirts of Banda-Ahenkro, August, 1982.
A spindle (gԑndԑ in Nafaanra) and a spindle whorl (gԑndԑ kaan in Nafaanra) used to make cotton thread. A black camera lens cap shows scale. For much of the 20th century, spinning was a routine activity for women. Some of the spun cotton thread was dyed blue. The blue thread was woven together with white thread to make durable strip-woven cloths that were highly valued. The rounded spindle whorl is made from fired clay and painted with white and red designs. The spindle whorl's decoration inspired the Nafaanra proverb: "Chlͻ were nyu na gԑndԑ yi" (The woman is as beautiful as the spindle whorl." Archaeologists have found spindle whorls on Banda-area archaeological sites dating to the late 18th and early 19th century. Before that time it seems that spinning cotton was not a routine household activity and that cloth was made in market centers. The spindle whorl is laying on a courtyard floor, with an eroding plaster layer visible in the background. Gbao, September, 1982.
A potter uses a maize cob (bledjukaan in Nafaanra) to smooth the surface of clay jar body that she is molding by a draw-and-drag (direct pull) technique. Beginning with a lump of moist clay, she has drawn the clay upward and outward, thinning the walls as she works. Here she moves clockwise around the stump that holds the palette (kpankpa in Nafaanra) on which the jar is being formed as she draws the maize cob up, pulling it towards her body. Bondakile, October, 1982.
A standing potter molds the body of a clay jar using a draw-and-drag (direct pull) technique. Here she uses a flat metal spatula to smooth the now-formed jar's exterior surface. She places the edge of her tool at the neck and makes downward strokes to create a smooth surface on the moist clay. As she works, she moves around the stump that supports the palette (kpankpa in Nafaanra) on which the jar is being formed. Bondakile, October, 1982.