The glass beads considered sacred and used in the puberty (Manaa Ndiom) and marriage (Bijam) rites of Nafana women are stored within a calabash bowl, its lid lying next to it. Most of the beads are imported varieties typical of those that circulated in the Atlantic trade period. On top of two other lidded calabash bowls rests a pair of iron manacles or shackles which are included among ritual paraphernalia. Ahenkro, July 1995.
A cashew tree (Anacardium sp.) grows in an agricultural field planted (foreground) with calabash (Lagenaria siceraria). Sampson Attah stands near the tree. Calabash has long been grown as a cash crop for local and regional sale in the Banda area. When cashew trees were first planted in the area from the mid-1990s, they were grown singly or in small numbers. A growing shift to cashew farming in the area during the early 2000s was accompanied by the planting of large stands of cashew trees referred to locally as "plantations." Banda area, June, 1995.