A man holds up for view a female (left) and male (right) pair of carved wooden bush cow (Siginjuru-ayna in Ligbi) masks during a 2019 interview with Ligbi elders in Bongase. Masks such as these have been used in masquerade dances to celebrate special occasions like weddings and public festivals including the end of Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting. The masks' features are highlighted by red, blue and white pigment. René A. Bravmann, an art historian, photographed the male bush cow mask in 1967 during doctoral dissertation fieldwork. For additional details, see Bravmann, René A. (1974) "Islam and Tribal Art in West Africa" (Cambridge University Press), pp. 147-177. Scholars refer to this masking tradition as "Do," while locally it is termed "Bedu." Bongase,11 June, 2019.